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Journal of Ayurveda

A Peer Reviewed Research Publication of
National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur

TABLE OF CONTENT

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

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Clinical Studies

*Dr. R. Nigam, **Dr. Amit Kumar Sharma, ***Dr. R. K. Joshi, ****Prof. A. K. Sharma

The Clinical Study To Evaluate Efficacy OfPanchatikta Ghana Vati & Mustadi Kwatha In The Management Of Madhumeha W.S.R. To Diabetes Mellitus

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

KEYWORDS - Madhumeha, Diabetes Mellitus, Mustadi Kwatha, Panchatikta Ghana Vati.
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ABSTRACT

Today the burden of diabetes is so high in India that our country is being called "the diabetes capital of the world". Diabetes `the rich man's disease' has become common among people of all economic classes, probably due to increase in adaptation of sedentary life style. It has turned out to be the biggest "silent killer" today in the world. In Madhumeha the patient passes urine which is sweet and astringent in test, whitish-pale in colour & unctuous. According to these properties of urine and etiological factors, clinical features, and pathogenesis, Diabetes mellitus can be correlated with Madhumeha. According to International Diabetes Federation's latest estimation, world prevalence of diabetes among adults (aged 20-79 years) were 6.4%, affecting 285 million adults, in 2ow, and will increase to 7.7% and 439 million adults by 2030. The study was conducted on 38 clinically diagnosed patients of Diabetes Mellitus with an objective of clinical evaluation of the efficacy of Panchatikta Ghana Vati and Mustadi Kwatha in the management of Madhumeha. These patients were randomly divided into three groups of 12 in group I, 13 in group II and 13 in group III. 38 patients were registered for present clinical study but 8 patients was drop out in mid of therapy. Only 3o patients was completed all follow ups. Regarding overall improvement in clinical features of Madhumeha in Group I mild (36.7o%) improvement was observed, moderate (58.39%) improvement in Group II & (70.45%) in Group HI. The chosen drug was effective in reducing blood sugar& urine sugar both fasting and postprandial (in group I, II and group III) except in FBS & FUS in group I & significant in reducing GHb in group II & III & highly significant in reducing BMI & Body weight in group H & III of Madhumeha but significant reduction observed in group I. No adverse effects were noted in any of the patients during the trial period.

Clinical Studies

*Dr. Narinder Sharma, **Prof Abhimanyu Kumar

Clinical Study of Haridradi Yog in Respiratory Allergic Disorders in Children

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

KEYWORDS - Bronchial asthma, Allergic rhinitis, Haridradi Yog & Placebo
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ABSTRACT

Respiratory Allergic disorders mainly bronchial asthma & allergic rhinitis are burning problem increasing day by day in children. Prevalence of asthma has risen in affluent countries over last 3o years. The objective of the present study was to assess the efficacy of Haridradi Yog in RADs. Children of age group 3-15 yrs were selected for double blind randomized study, divided into two group treated by study drug & placebo in a dose of (31/m1/Kg body weight twice a day. Assessment criteria was clinical features & blood for 1-1b%, TLC, DLC,TEC, ESR, IgE, Stool for cyst & ova & spirometry. The study shows that syrup Haridradi Yog is effective in alleviating & reducing the morbidity features of RADs. Significant reduction was found in incidence & severity of symptoms i.e. cough, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, impaired smell, throat inflammation, dyspnoea, nasal/eye itching, headache, fever, sneezing & hoarseness of voice.

Clinical Studies

*Dr. Siddaram Arawatti, "Dr. Seema Murthy, ***Dr. Yogesh Pande, ****Dr. Y. P. Shyamarao, *****Dr. M. K. Shringi

The Management Of Post Operative Pain In Gudag at Vikara (Bhagandara) With Yashtimadhu Yoga

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

KEYWORDS - Post-operative pain, fistula in ano, Gudagata vikara, yashtimadhu yoga
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ABSTRACT

The ability to alleviate post-operative pain is one of the most noteworthy goal for Surgery, and pain is a natural sequel of every Surgical procedure. In modern system of medicine, they are using NSAIDs, Tramadol hydrochloride, Opioids etc. to manage post operative pain. But these drugs are having their own side effects like acidity, peptic ulcer, Astliama etc. In ancient Ayurveda, our Acharyas mentioned various Vedanashamak drugs which are not having above side effects. In present study the trial drug Yastimadhu was choosen from Sushnit Chikisthan 2/48. In this study total 3o patients were selected and divided into 2 groups. A (Trail) - treated with Yashtimadhu yoga and Group B (Control) — treated with Triphala Guggulu. Yashtimadhu yoga effectively relieves post-operative pain without any side effects. Study reveals, significant benefit was observed by the trial drug to reduce post operative pain with a p-value of <0.01.

Clinical Studies

*Dr. Swati Khandale, **Dr. O. P. Dadhich, ***Dr. B. S. Shyamkuvar, ****Prof. M.S. Meena

The Role of Krishrtabola in the Management of Artiyamit Rajah Pravritt (Irregular Menstruation) w.s.r. Apanvayu Vikriti

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

KEYWORDS - Aniyamita rajah pravritti, Apanvayu, Krishnabola
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ABSTRACT

Present era has witnessed Aniyamita Rajah pravritti (irregular menstruation) as a major problem due to life style changes and ever mounting physical and mental stress on females. According to Ayurveda these are included in a group of diseases called Yonlvyapat. All yonivyapats invariably have span uayu uikriti as a causative factor. Delayed & irregular menstruation is associated with Kashtartava (Dysmenorrhoea) and Alpartava (Scanty Menses), Krishnabola (Aloe barbcndis) has aartavjanaka action due to its ushna teekshna gunas and katu- tikta rasa, so it is used in delayed & irregular menstruation. Clinical trial was carried out to study effect of Krishnabola on apana uata uikriti. Trial consists of two groups of which in the experimental group 100 mg of krishnabola choorna & in control group placebo (Indian arrow root powder) was administered for 7 days prior to menstrual cycle for three consecutive menstrual cycles. Effects on functions of apana vayu & rajah pravritti were observed.

Clinical Studies

*Dr.Umed Kulria, **Dr. Durgawati Devi, ***Dr. Kamalesh Kumar Sharma

A Study On The Efficacy Of Vyoshadi Saktu And Surya-Namaskar W.S.R. To Nindita Purush (Sthaulya)

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

KEYWORDS - Sthaulya, Surya-Namuskar, Obesity
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ABSTRACT

The study was conducted in 3o patients of Sthaulya with an objective of clinical evaluation of the efficacy of Vyoshadi Saktu and Surya-Namaskar in the management of Sthaulya (obesity). These patients were divided into two groups of 15 patients each. Patients of Group-A were administered Vyoshadi Saktu 6ogm twice a day before meal for two months and patients of Group-B were recommended Vyoshadi Saktu 6ogm twice a day for two months and Surya-Namaskar for two months early in the morning at yoga unit starting with minimum two rounds of whole process of Surya-Namaskar and increased the number of rounds day by day according to Sharirika Bala of the patients simultaneously. It was observed that the patients of Sthaulya of Group-B treated with Vyoshadi Saktu and Surya-Namaskar showed more percentage of subjective improvement i.e. 32.55%, whereas it was 11.94% in patients of Group-A and more percentage of objective improvements in Group-B 5.36%, whereas it was 4.25% in Group-A. All the patients responded to medicines very well and no side effects or toxicity effects of any of these drugs were reported except slight increase in Apaan Vayu and Vibandhu just after taking medicine in some of the patients, which were controlled after adjusting the dosage of Vyoshadi Saktu.

Clinical Studies

*Dr. Gayatri S. Sawant, **Dr. Mrs. Yashashree V. Jashi

A Clinical Study of efficacy of Ashwagandhadi Ghrita & Hitakara Ahara in Physical Strength

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

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ABSTRACT

Today's competitive era has increased speed of life. People are running with life irrespective of their health. Untimely food intake, lack of exercise, intake of fast & foreign foods are ultimately affecting on their health. Its worst effect is seen on their children mainly. On the other hand, people are migrating towards cities in the hope of productive work & income generation. But their struggle accelerates in the cities which ultimately results in their ill-health. Their children become victim of this situation. Both reasons are resulting in the weak generation. As children are pillars of developing nation, child health is a critical issue for society. Hence this is the right time to inculcate people about Ayurvedic directives of Ahara (Diet), Vihara (Regimen), & Rasayana Aushadha (Rejuvenator) which will improve their strength, as Ayurved has described that health is directly proportional to strength of an individual. With these views, this study was planned for children from urban slum area in Pune city with Hitakara Ahara (beneficial and essential daily food) & Ashwagandhadi Ghrita (as Rasayana). This is a case control study. Children in control group are 5o (treated with Mid-Day-Meal by Govt.) & in experimental group are 51(treated with Hitakara Ahara & Ashwagandhadi Ghrita). Both the groups are assessed by anthropometric parameters of growth & strength by Hand-grip-Dynamometer. Comparing both the groups, statistical result shows that physical strength is improved in experimental group is more significant than control group.

Clinical Studies

*Dr. Itika Pamnani, **Dr. Pawankumar Godatwar, ***Dr. Gulab Chand Pamnani

An Etiopathological Study On Mutrashmari And Therapeutic Effect of Trutyadi Churrta & Vrihat Varunadi Ktuath —A Comparative Study

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

KEYWORDS - Mutrashmari, Urolithiasis, Trutyadi, Vruhat Varunadi, Renel calculi
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ABSTRACT

Mutrashmari is a global problem. It leads to urinary tract infection and other complications like hydronephrosis, hydroureter, pyonephrosis, renal failure etc. and subsequent damage to the renal architecture which is often irreversible. Formation of Mutrashmari, according to Sushruta, is due to Srotovaigunya resulting from Dushita 'Capita localized in Basti, in conjunction with Pradusita Vata and Pitta it is responsible for the cause of Ashman*. Mutrashmari (Urolithiasis) is the most common affliction of the urinary tract. It can occur in both the sex at any age, but commonly in 3rd and 4th decades. The urinary stone have peculiar tendency of recurrence despite of their surgical removal. Once a stone formed, is always stone former. Therefore, surgery can only be a part of treatment, but not the sheer treatment. To avoid the incidence of recurrence after surgical removal of stone and in search of an effective conservative treatment the present work has been undertaken.

Clinical Studies

*Dr. Tapas Kumar Sarkar, **Dr. Nisha Gupta

A Comparative Study on Guduchi and Rose Water Shirodhara In Stress Induced Insomnia W.S.R.To The Principle-Brinhanarn Yatca Tat Sarvam Prasastham Vataroginam (Ch. hi, 28/106)

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

KEYWORDS - sirodhara, insomnia, stress
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ABSTRACT

Nidra, the most important aspect of life, is considered as upastambha of life without which the dimension and homeostasis of life is not significantly maintained. In this current era, on account of excessive desires in all aspects of life and induced stress hamper this sub-pillar a lot from all angles. A very vast group of people in the society suffer from 'improper quality of sleep'. Insomnia is the most important one among these quality sleep disorder. No such safe and convenient therapy in this regards is available. Siradhara, one of the most expedient therapy among the murdhataila, is indicated and being applied in this disease by ayurvedic scholars for a long period. The current article deals with the scientific evaluation of "guduchi" and "rose water shirodhara" in "stress induced insomnia" w.s.r.to the principle— brinhanam gatea tat sarvam prasastham vataroginarn (reichschi, 28/106).

Pharmaceutical Study

*Prof. Dr. Chakrapany Sharma

Hypoglycemic Activity of Indrayava (Holarrhena antidysenterica seeds) In-Vivo Study On Stz-Induced Diabetic Rats

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

KEYWORDS - Madhumehu, Promeha, Tkta Rasa, Indrayava
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ABSTRACT

India is going to become a developed country. The diseases of developed country are now increasingly affecting the Indian population due to the change in lifestyle. Among these disorders Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most important problems we have to face. Especially, Type2 Diabetes Mellitus is affecting most of the population. Diabetes is going to become an epidemic worldwide. It is a disabling disease as it results in amputations, blindness, renal failure, cardiac diseases and even death. It has been estimated by the World Health Organization that the prevalence of diabetes in the developing world will increase by 48% by the year 2025, which will equate to an actual increase of 170% in the number of diabetes sufferers. By 2025, over 75% of diabetes cases will be in the developing world. India has the highest prevalence of diabetes in the world (32 million expected to increase to 78 million by 2030 according to WHO estimate), accounting for almost one sixth of the world's diabetic patients. Asian Indians are genetically predisposed to insulin resistance and because of this, in conjunction with a more sedentary lifestyle, higher total and saturated fat consumption and a higher intake of cholesterol and refined carbohydrates, thus they are at a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Although there are a number of hypoglycemic agents available, but they don't span a total control over the blood glucose levels over long periods of time and are accompanied by many side effects. In addition to these they are much costly and impose extra financial burden on the patients. These factors put the regular use of such drugs under question. Various Ayurvedic herbs have also been shown to control the glycemic levels but the quantified effects of such drugs are available to a limited extent in scientific way. Ancient authors of Ayurveda mentioned various descriptions of diseases and medicines have left numerous "clues" regarding some topics. These "clues" can be expanded and expressed with the help of various tools available in present era. A similar "clue" about Bitter (Tikta) drugs of Ayurveda was found to be in favor of explorative research for hypoglycemic drugs as bitter drugs are said to be having properties opposite to the Sweet (Madhura Rasa). A study reveals that the seed of Holarrhena antidysenterica is the bitter most herb among Ayurvedic herbs having Tikta (Bitter) Taste. Thus making use of this concept and the testing methods like Albino Rat models of Diabetes Mellitus, this study has been designed to observe the hypoglycemic potential of bitter herb — Holarrhena antidysenterica seeds, used in Ayurveda. So to make a use of natural resources in the area of need, this study has been designed and work has been carried out in this direction.

Pharmaceutical Study

*Dr. Ashok Kumar Sharma, **Dr. Manisha

Role Of Guggulu In Aroma Industry And Cosmetic Industry

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

KEYWORDS - Guggulu, Aroma Therapy, Cosmetic Therapy
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ABSTRACT

Guggulu, the resin from Commiphora mukul has been mentioned in the Atharvaveda and in medical texts, Charaka, Sushruta Samhitas and nighantus. It is bitter, astringent, sweet and pungent. It balances all doshas. It mainly useful in arthritis, Boils, Beusitis. Now a days it is used in aroma therapy and cosmetic industry. Essential oil derived from it's resin is useful in various illness such as Depression, Stress, Arthritis, Low Back Pain etc. Also as a aromatic substance, Egyptians used it for religious and medicinal purpose. Even smelling these oils stimulates the brain's Limbic system via the Olfactory Nerve and alters our Emotional and Mental Behaviour. Thus Guggulu is very useful in the form of essential oil in aroma industry and cosmetic industry.

Pharmaceutical Study

*Dr. Wathsala Wijesinghe, **Dr. Mita Katecha, ***Dr. Suresh P.

Use of Pratinidhi dravya for Kusa (Desmostachya bipinnata Stap.f) in Sri Lankan Traditional Medical System A Base Line Survey

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

KEYWORDS - Pratinidhi drauya, Traditional Medical System, Sri Lanka, Thruna pancha mula, abhava, Kusa
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ABSTRACT

Thruna pancha mula is a famous formula mentioned in Ayurveda text books such as Charaka Samhitha, Susrutha samhta and Sarartha Sangraha. The same formula is being used by Sri Lankan Traditional Medical System for hundreds of years by using substitutes due to abhava of the original Kusa plant (Desmostachya bipinnata Stap.f in Sri Lanka. With the objective "to make a comprehensive list of the substitutes used for Kusa (Desmostachya bipinnata Stap.f). by Traditional Medical Practitioners in Sri Lanka", data was collected by Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and literature review. Majority of the traditional practitioners use Themeda triandra Forssk.as kusa (53%). 21% use Heteropogon contortus (L.), 18% Fimbristylis ovata (Burm.f.) Kern , Oryza sp. by 7% and 1% Pathos scandens L. Of these five substitutes, 3 belong to Poaceae family, 1 belong to Cyperaceae and the other to Araceae family. This preliminary study reports will help to find the best substitute which will increase the efficacy of the drug, minimize the use of adulterants, also it will lead to new methods of identifying legitimate drug alternatives, and help solve industry's problems of crude drug shortage.

Pharmaceutical Study

*Dr. Mohar Pal Meena, **Dr. K. Shankar Rao, *** Dr. L. K. Dwivedi

Role of Arkavati in the Management of Agnimandya

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

KEYWORDS -
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ABSTRACT

Arkavati is a classical preparation of Ayurveda and is commonly used for the treatment of Agnimandya, Udarshoola, etc. It has been described in various Ayurvedic classics such as Siddhabheshaj Manimala, Lakshmimoda Tarangini etc. Mode of preparation and ingredients are variable in different classics. Thus the study was planned to prepare two samples of Arkavati according to classical method. The clinical evaluation had been done on 40 clinically diagnosed patients of Kaphaja Agnimandya. Two groups of 20 patient each had formed and administered 2 samples of Akravati. Clinical evaluation had done on both the parameters i.e. classical and modern. Over all there was 49.51% improvement in group A patients and 48.83% improvement in group B patients. There was 53.38% improvement in group A symptom and 51.11% improvement in group B symptom. Over all the final results showing efficacy of Arkavati in Agnimandya.

Conceptual Studies

*Dr. Sarvesh Kumar Agrawal

A Conceptual Study On The Preventive Aspect Of Brahmacharya In Ayurueda

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

KEYWORDS - Brahmacharya, Trayapstarnhha, Ashrama, Grihastha, Upakurvana Brahmacharya, Naishthika Brahmacharya
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ABSTRACT

Ahara (food), Nidra (sleep) and Brahmacharya (regulation of sex) are the major factors responsible for Samyavastha and Asamyavastha of Tridosha in our body. They maintain the health if used properly, so they are called Trayopstambha (three sub-pillars of life). Brahmacharya is understood as complete sexual aversion but it is not always true. Actually Brahmacharya is regulation of sex; this is the Charya (Conducts) of Brahma (Shukra). Here Brahma is considered as semen. Brahmacharya indicates the age, season, frequency, time, place, method, suitable and unsuitable male and female. In ancient time the whole life span of human has been divided into four stages (Ashrama) i.e. Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha and Sanyasa. In Grihastha Ashrarna regulated sex is natural requirement, so the sex abstinence is followed in other three Ashrama is called Upakurvana Brahmacharya. Complete abstenance from sex has to be followed in all four Ashrarnas is called Naishthika Brahmacharya. According to Bhava Prakash strict aversion to sex in Grihastha may lead to many disorders like Prameha, Obesity and looseness in the body. Brahmacharya promotes the Sizaririka and Manasika Bala in a person and prevents many physical and mental diseases. Avoiding the conducts of Brahmacharya may leads to STDs, depression, anxiety, Vata Roga, Yoni Raga etc.

Conceptual Studies

*Dr. Raakhi Mehra

Natural Anti-Aging Therapy with Ayurveda

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

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ABSTRACT

Aging researchers currently acknowledge only two life-extending interventions in mammals: calorie restriction and genetic manipulation. The free radical theory of aging put forth by Denham Harmon from the University of Nebraska College of Medicine in 1954. This theory did not have much support from the medical community until the early 19905, when results from studies by scientists began to show that oxidative damage to human cells accumulates with age and is a major contributor to degenerative diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, and nervous system dysfunction. Free radicals are formed in the body as by-products of cellular metabolism. Chemically a free radical is a molecule highly reactive with at least on unpaired electron. Since reactive or unstable molecules strive to achieve a stable, neutral state, free radicals circulate through the body on a mission to stabilize their electron structure. During this process, they attack the DNA, lipid membranes, and cellular proteins of the body. The number of free radicals in the body is increased by environmental factors such as chemicals, pesticides, cigarette smoke, air pollution, UV exposure (sun light), radiation, stress, age, and fried, processed foods. Some experts estimate that free radical activity is involved in 80 - 9096 of degenerative diseases. Antioxidants are compounds that control the damage caused by free radicals and neutralize free radicals. Our bodies produce antioxidants to neutralize free radicals, but the levels of antioxidants decrease in aging process. Human quest for youth begins from ancient times and continues from the twentieth century until today. Pre scientific beliefs were governed by animistic forms of thoughts leading to attempts to control aging, disease and death through magic and supernatural agencies. Careful adherence to nutrition, hormonal and cell based therapies, genetic manipulations, other medications and supplements can increase one's chances of living a healthy life. The world Health organization has clearly recognized the utility of Ayurveda system of medicine to fulfill the World wide health need of present scientific era. To study the concept of resistance against disease in terms of immunity and the idea that such resistance can be modified by using several pharmacologic and non pharmacologic approach is of clinical use. In ayurvedic system of medicine several natural medicinal plants have been mentioned which are being used as a potent agent to modify the cell regeneration, cell longetivity with cytokinetic and cytogenetic improvement to retard the ageing.

Conceptual Studies

*Dr. Vaishali Mali, **Dr. Pavan Kumar Mali, ***Dr. Baldev Kumar

Samprapti - Lakshana Sambhandha in Tamakshvasa

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

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ABSTRACT

This paper describes the details of lakshan samprapti occurring in patients of tamakshvas. Various symptoms of tamakshvas are studied and analyzed for underlying pathology. Hetu, ling and aushadhi are the trisutra mentioned in Ayurveda. These are important in the diagnosis and treatment of any disease. Disease is mentioned as lakshan samucchaya i.e. group of symptoms. Every symptom present in the body is repercussion of underlying pathology. Underlying samprapti was going on from indulgence of nidan upto the appearance of symptoms in the body. For the treatment purpose it is essential to find out this underlying pathology based on lakshana. `Samprapti vighatanam eva chikitsa' i.e.treatment based on samprapti vighatan gives complete relief from disease & recurrence of disease as long as hetu-sevan is restricted.

Literary Reviews

*Dr. Bhargav Bhide, **Dr. Rabinarayan Acharya

Evidence based studies on certain Ayurvedic drugs in the management of skin diseases — A Review

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

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ABSTRACT

Ayurvedic classics have delineated a variety of skin diseases under Kushtha disorder. Sushruta has included Kushtha under communicable diseases (6 aupasargika ragas) along with Jwara (infective fever), Shosha (wasting disease including TB) and Abhishyanda (conjunctivitis). Either varieties of Kushtha include bacterial, viral, fungal, psycho-somatic and depigmentary diseases. Patients suffering from recurrent skin diseases are preferring treatment of alternative systems. Research carried out during the past five decades have revalidated the classical claims recorded in the ayurvedic literature. In the present paper an attempt has been made to review researches carried out at IPGT & RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar with certain herbs viz. Tuvaraka, Guduchi, Paranti, Araguadha, Karanja, Neelkanthi etc. and certain compound formulations in the skin diseases like Vicharchika (eczema), Shwitra (vitiligo), Ekakushtha (psoriasis), etc.

Literary Reviews

dr. asit kumar panja,dr. vidhayadish anantacharya kashikar

बुद्धि प्रज्ञापराध विवेचनम

2012   |   October- December   |   VOLUME - VI   |   ISSUE - 4

KEYWORDS - buddhi, prajnaparadha, dhi,dhriti, smiriti
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ABSTRACT

Buddhi, intelligence or intellect, is the capacity for rational thought, inference or discrimination. In ayurueda literature 4buddhi-tatua' has been given immense importance and its presence is found right from the evolution process in the form of mahat-tatua. Various angles of buddhi have also been categorically mentioned under the heading of diti, dhriti and smiti. Dhi, understanding or wisdom, signifies the quality of being prudent and sensible; dhriti , holding or will, implies the capability of conscious choice and decision and intention where as swift, remembrance or reminiscence or memory, means the ability to recall past occurrences. The term prajna is used for buddhi. Three causative factors namely asatmaindriyarthasamyoga, prujnaparadha and parinam have been mentioned for production of any disease in ayurveda. Impairment of all the three faculties of buddhi unitely causes the derangement of prajna which is known as prajnaparadha and is considered as the prime factor for disease. Various synonyms are used for each of the aforesaid terms in ayurvedie classics. Proper acquaintance of these terms are necessary for understanding the physiological pathways, pathological consequences and clinical stage wise treatment. This is attempt to give a classics overview of buddhi and pranjaparadha with contextual evidence.

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